Due to their function, position and complex structure, the feet are exposed to numerous and diverse potential infections and injuries (foot structure: 26 bones of 33 joints and more than 100 muscles, tendons and ligaments). In addition, there are several genetic conditions that affect the shape and function of the foot. One of the most common deformities of the locomotor system in school-age children is a flat foot, and it can be combined with a completely lowered arch of the foot, which further aggravates the condition.
Flat feet can be: congenital (genetic predisposition) and acquired. Also flat feet can be flexible and rigid. The flexible flat foot allows a clear arch when standing on the toes, but when leaning on a full foot, the arch is lost, unlike a rigid foot which is always straight regardless of position.
Acquired flat feet are most often caused by insufficient and irregular activity of children in the first years of life. Therefore, it is necessary to avoid premature uprighting of the child so that what "walks sooner", excessive carrying of the child in his arms, also sudden growth and obesity also increase the risk. Foot formation is a dynamic process during the period of a child's growth and development, and in that sense there are anatomical variations. By the 18th month of life, flat feet are a physiological phenomenon, and according to some authors up to the 3rd year of a child's life (although in the Anglo-Saxon professional literature this period is extended to the 5th or even the 6th year of life). Deformity is mostly noticed during the obligatory systematic examination for enrollment in school, but still, flat feet, apart from the aesthetic effect, often do not cause any problems or functional limitations.
If symptoms do occur, they depend on the type of deformity, and the child most often complains of pain and cramps in the foot, leg and knee, instability in the ankle, awkwardness when walking or running, unable to walk for long, reluctant to run, tired quickly. , avoid physical activities and have difficulty with footwear.
It should always be borne in mind that flat feet can cause severe disturbances in the statics and dynamics of the whole body, but they can be treated.
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